Whether you are on a municipal water supply or well water, you need a water filter. In fact, you need an entire water filtration system. If you are on well water, you need a very robust system that is designed to address your specific needs. When water is stored in the round, many different minerals dissolve into the water. Depending on where you live, you will need to filter out different materials. The best way to figure out how to do that is by sending a water sample to a scientist who can analyse it for its constituent elements.
If you are on a municipal water supply, the water has already been treated once but you should treat it again. Water from a municipal water supply is treated with sanitizing chemicals such as chlorine, and you don’t want to drink chlorine even though it does clean the water. So, with a municipal water supply, you will need to filter out different chemicals. You can find some great filtration systems for both city and well water at cleanairpurewater.com. There are systems available for single fixtures, entire homes, and more.
Activated charcoal is the primary ingredient in most water filters. It is the active ingredient in the filters that go over your faucet and the filters in your water pitchers. If your water filter gets old enough, tiny black pellets will start to fall out of it. That is the activated charcoal, and you should have changed your filter long before that happened. Activated charcoal has an enormous amount of surface area for its size.
If you look at activated charcoal on a molecular level, it has thousands of different surfaces. It also carries something of a charge that connects many different elements. The different elements then stick to all of the available surfaces. Charcoal filters out most metals and physical contaminants dissolved in water.
An ion is an element that has a different number of electrons and protons. Protons have a positive charge, and electrons have a negative charge. So, when they are imbalanced, the element has a net positive or net negative charge. Most elements have some kind of a charge, which means that ionized filters will filter out specific contaminants.
For example, a positively-charged contaminant will need a negatively-ionized filter that targets it specifically. That is why it is so important that you take the first step of sending your water sample to a scientist. While a generic water filtration system from a quality supplier will likely filter most substances, you want better service. If you want a fully-functional water filtration system delivering the purest water possible, it needs to be custom-made.
There are also filters that contain catalysing chemicals. A catalyst in a chemical reaction is any chemical that facilitates a change in the chemical makeup of another molecule but does not itself change. A catalyst in a filter can turn a harmful substance into a harmless one without being itself changed. Those are important filter elements as well.